List of public pages created with Protopage


Rich sticky notes


Cells are very interesting.There's a cell in that plant thats in your kitchen window, and then theres a cell thats in your dog right now. Two different ypes of cells, but both are the building blocks of the living things.Cells are amazing! "How?" you ask? not gna tell you!   Your gna have to search through our page and I think it will be pretty obvious to see how cells are kinda weird but also intereting and make you want to search more about them. There are so many organelles and then the types of cells!!Oh My Gosh. They are amazing!!! But find out for your self.EXPLORE! Have fun!

Virtual Cell Tour
presented by







what is the eukaryotic cell?

Plain sticky notes

A Eukaryotic Cell

Eukaryotes are cells that contain nuclei. In eukaryotic cells the nucleus is where the cell's genetic material is separated from the rest of the cell. Eukaryotic cells are typically 10 to 100 micrometers across, or about 10 times the size of prokaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells divide in two ways: mitosis and meiosis, which both involve separating duplicated chromosomes, through movements directed by microtubules. The set of ideas most favored by biologists to explain how eukaryotic cells first came about is called the endosymbiotic theory. According to the endosymbiotic theory, eukaryotic cells arose from living communities formed by prokaryotic cells. Examples of eukaryotic cells would be animal, plant, fungi, and protist cells.


the cell


cell membrane

The Cell membrane has many jobs for the cell. It provides shape and support. It regulates all that enters and leaves the cell. It is constructed of a bilayer of phospholipids. It is a semi permeable membrane, meaning that it lets some things in and out and not others. Some things are too large to pass through so there are also carrier proteins that regulate transport and diffusion. Carrier proteins move specific molecules through the membrane one at a time. Marker proteins extend across the cell membrane and serve to identify the cell. The immune system uses these proteins to tell friendly cells from foreign invaders. These proteins are used in intercellular communication.


Cytoplasm refers to everything between the cell membrane and the nuclear envelope. It consists of primarily of water. It also contains various organelles as well as salts, dissolved gasses and nutrients. It is where all the chemical reactions take place in the cell.


These ribosomes build proteins for the cell. Ribosomes are found in many places around the cell. Some are floating in the cytoplasm. Those floating ribosomes make proteins that will be used inside of the cell. Other ribosomes are found on the endoplasmic reticulum. They make proteins that will be used inside the cell and proteins made for export out of the cell. A ribosome is not just one piece, but two subunits. When the cell needs to make protein, messenger RNA is created in the nucleus and sent into the cell to the ribosomes. When it is time to make the protein, the two subunits come together and combine with the messenger RNA, lock onto it and start the protein synthesis.


The nuclelous is found inside the nucleus. A main function of the nucleolus is the production and assembly of ribosome components. The nucleolus is roughly spherical, and is surrounded by a layer of condensed chromatin. No membrane separates the nucleolus from the nucleoplasm.

Golgi Apparatus

The function of the golgi apparatus is to modify, sort, and package proteins and other materials from the E.R. for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell. Once the proteins are produced by the rough E.R. they pass into the sack like cisternae that are the main part of the golgi apparatus. These proteins are then squeezed off into the little blebs which drift off into the cytoplasm.


The cytoskeleton helps to maintain cell shape. Its primary importance is in cell movement. The internal movement of cell organelles, as well as cell locomotion and muscle fiber contraction could not take place without the cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton is an organized network of three primary protein filaments: microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate fibers.

Cilia and Flagella

Cilia and Flagella These are hair-like extentions off of the cell membrane. Their structures are similar except that cilia tend to be small and numerous and flagella tend to be large and fewer. They beat back and forth rhythmically. In unicellular organisms their job is movement. In large multicellular organisms their role is to move fluid past the cell. They have a 9+2 arrangement of microtubles.


Peroxisomes are round in shape, and a cell contains several hundred of them. They are contained in a membrane of proteins and lipids, and their inside contains oxidation enzymes. It is thought that peroxisomes developed due to the increase of oxygen in the environment. Like mitochondrions, peroxisomes are self-replicating. Their "life-span" is only a day. The main function of peroxisomes is to isolate atoms with hydrogen by adding oxygen, making hydrogen peroxide, or to break down hydrogen peroxide by adding oxygen to make water and oxygen gas. Another function of peroxisomes is converting fatty acids to sugars. Peroxisomes also decompose some fatty acids entirely.


Vacuoles are large areas in the cytoplasm that appear emtpy, but store water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates. They are usually found in plant cells where they store waste. As a plant cell ages they get larger. In mature cells they occupy most of the cytoplasm.


Lysosomes are organelles filled with enzymes. One function of lysosomes is the digestion, or breakdown, of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell. Lysosomes are also involved in breaking down organelles that have outlived their usefulness.

endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum is a series of double membranes that loop back and forth between the cell membrane and the nucleus. These membranes fill the cytoplasm but you cannot see them because they are very transparent. The rough E.R. has ribosomes attached to it. This gives it its texture. The smooth does not have ribosomes.


Mitochondria are organelles that covert energy stored in food into compounds that the cell can use. This energy is what the cell needs to move, divide, produce, secret products, and contract. They are the power centers of the cell. Mitochondria have a double membrane like the nucleus. The outer membrane is fairly smooth. But the inner membrane is highly convoluted, forming folds called cristae. The cristae greatly increase the inner membrane's surface area. It is on these cristae that food (sugar) is combined with oxygen to produce ATP which is the primary energy source for the cell. In humans, mitochondria are passed on through the egg cell passing on the mom's DNA


The nucleus is a large dark spot in eukaryotic cells that controls cell activity like the brain of a cell. It is surrounded by a nuclear membrane that has many pores in it. Inside is a rope like strand of chromatin. Also inside is the nuclelous which is a knot of chromatin. It manufactures ribosomes. The chromatin is a combination of DNA and histone proteins. It stores the information needed for the manufacture of proteins.


A chromosome is a single long molecule of DNA found in cells. Chromosomes contain one very long, continuous piece of DNA which contains many genes. Eukaryotic cells have large linear chromosomes and prokaryotic cells have smaller circular chromosomes. In eukaryotes nuclear chromosomes are packaged by proteins into a condensed structure called chromatin.


A centriole is a barrel shaped organelle found in animal cells. There are two of them during cell division, they move to opposite sides of the cell, and each new paired set of centrioles is composed of the original centriole, plus a newly-made centriole.

Lets take a closer look


Cell Membrane




Gogi Apparatus




Endoplasmic Reticulum






Cilia and Flagella

Cell with Ceilla and Fagella

what are the organelles like?


Rich sticky notes



“The Vitual Cell Tour” The Virtual Cell Retrieved November 8, 2007

“Chromosome” Retrieved November 8, 2007

“The Virtual Textbook” The Virtual Cell Webpage. Retrieved November 8, 2007

“Ribosomes – Protein Construction Team.” Retrieved November 8, 2007.

“Mitochondria”  Retrieved November 8, 2007.

“Lysosome”  Retrieved November 8, 2007.

“Perixosomes”. Retrieved November 8, 2007.

“Cytoskeleton”  Retrieved November 8, 2007.


"Eukaryotic Cell" The Internet Encyclopedia of Science. Retrieved November 12, 2007.


Miller, Kenneth, and Levine, Joseph. Biology. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.


"Anatomy of a Animal Cell" Retrieved November 8, 2007


“Animal Cells” Retrieved November 8, 2007

"Animal Cell" Mr. Stein Retrieved November 8, 2007

"glossary" Retrieved November 8, 2007